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Android消息机制源码分析

Android消息机制的概述

Handler 是Android消息机制的上层接口,通过它可以轻松的将一个任务切换到Handler所在的线程去执行。

Q&A

  • 为什么Android需要通过Handler去切换任务执行的线程呢?
    因为Android规定只能在主线程中更新UI。如果在子线程中访问就会抛出异常,看源码中的操作:
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void checkThread() {
if (mThread != Thread.currentThread()) {
throw new CalledFromWrongThreadException(
"Only the original thread that created a view hierarchy can touch its views.");
}
}

但是Android系统建议不能在主线程中进行耗时操作,所以产生Handler的原因就是为了解决在子线程中无法访问UI的矛盾。

  • 系统为什么不允许在子线程中访问UI呢?
    因为Android的UI是线程不安全的,多线程并发访问会导致UI控件处于不可预期的状态。
  • 为什么不加锁同步访问呢?
    影响效率。

Handle的工作原理

在创建的时候会采用当前线程的Looper来构建内部的消息循环系统,如果当前线程没有Looper就会报错。Handler创建完毕之后
其内部的Looper和MessageQueue就可以和Handler一起工作了。

主要的类

  • Handler(主要负责消息的发送与接收)
  • MessageQueue (单链表结构,负责消息的插入与读取)
  • Looper(轮询消息队列)
    • ThreadLocal (线程内部的数据存储类)

Android消息机制的分析

ThreadLocal的工作原理

是一个线程内部的数据存储类,通过它可以在指定的线程存储数据,存储之后,也只能在指定线程中获取到存储的数据,其他线程是无法获取到的。

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//ThreadLocal.java
public void set(T value) {
Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
if (map != null)
map.set(this, value);
else
createMap(t, value);
}
public T get() {
Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
if (map != null) {
ThreadLocalMap.Entry e = map.getEntry(this);
if (e != null)
return (T)e.value;
}
return setInitialValue();
}

MessageQueue的工作原理

主要包含两个操作插入enqueueMessage读取next。读取本身会伴随着删除操作。消息队列内部维护的是一个单链表结构,因为单链表进行插入与删除的操作效率较高。下面是两个方法的实现。

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// 其实就是单链表的插入操作
boolean enqueueMessage(Message msg, long when) {
if (msg.target == null) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Message must have a target.");
}
if (msg.isInUse()) {
throw new IllegalStateException(msg + " This message is already in use.");
}
synchronized (this) {
if (mQuitting) {
IllegalStateException e = new IllegalStateException(
msg.target + " sending message to a Handler on a dead thread");
Log.w(TAG, e.getMessage(), e);
msg.recycle();
return false;
}
msg.markInUse();
msg.when = when;
Message p = mMessages;
boolean needWake;
if (p == null || when == 0 || when < p.when) {
// New head, wake up the event queue if blocked.
msg.next = p;
mMessages = msg;
needWake = mBlocked;
} else {
// Inserted within the middle of the queue. Usually we don't have to wake
// up the event queue unless there is a barrier at the head of the queue
// and the message is the earliest asynchronous message in the queue.
needWake = mBlocked && p.target == null && msg.isAsynchronous();
Message prev;
for (;;) {
prev = p;
p = p.next;
if (p == null || when < p.when) {
break;
}
if (needWake && p.isAsynchronous()) {
needWake = false;
}
}
msg.next = p; // invariant: p == prev.next
prev.next = msg;
}
// We can assume mPtr != 0 because mQuitting is false.
if (needWake) {
nativeWake(mPtr);
}
}
return true;
}
//是一个无限循环的方法,如果消息队列中没有消息,next方法就会阻塞在这里,有新消息到来,会返回这条消息并将其从单链表中移除
Message next() {
int pendingIdleHandlerCount = -1; // -1 only during first iteration
int nextPollTimeoutMillis = 0;
for (;;) {
if (nextPollTimeoutMillis != 0) {
Binder.flushPendingCommands();
}
nativePollOnce(ptr, nextPollTimeoutMillis);
synchronized (this) {
// Try to retrieve the next message. Return if found.
final long now = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
Message prevMsg = null;
Message msg = mMessages;
if (msg != null && msg.target == null) {
// Stalled by a barrier. Find the next asynchronous message in the queue.
do {
prevMsg = msg;
msg = msg.next;
} while (msg != null && !msg.isAsynchronous());
}
if (msg != null) {
if (now < msg.when) {
// Next message is not ready. Set a timeout to wake up when it is ready.
nextPollTimeoutMillis = (int) Math.min(msg.when - now, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
} else {
// Got a message.
mBlocked = false;
if (prevMsg != null) {
prevMsg.next = msg.next;
} else {
mMessages = msg.next;
}
msg.next = null;
if (DEBUG) Log.v(TAG, "Returning message: " + msg);
msg.markInUse();
return msg;
}
} else {
// No more messages.
nextPollTimeoutMillis = -1;
}
// Process the quit message now that all pending messages have been handled.
if (mQuitting) {
dispose();
return null;
}
// If first time idle, then get the number of idlers to run.
// Idle handles only run if the queue is empty or if the first message
// in the queue (possibly a barrier) is due to be handled in the future.
if (pendingIdleHandlerCount < 0
&& (mMessages == null || now < mMessages.when)) {
pendingIdleHandlerCount = mIdleHandlers.size();
}
if (pendingIdleHandlerCount <= 0) {
// No idle handlers to run. Loop and wait some more.
mBlocked = true;
continue;
}
if (mPendingIdleHandlers == null) {
mPendingIdleHandlers = new IdleHandler[Math.max(pendingIdleHandlerCount, 4)];
}
mPendingIdleHandlers = mIdleHandlers.toArray(mPendingIdleHandlers);
}
// Run the idle handlers.
// We only ever reach this code block during the first iteration.
for (int i = 0; i < pendingIdleHandlerCount; i++) {
final IdleHandler idler = mPendingIdleHandlers[i];
mPendingIdleHandlers[i] = null; // release the reference to the handler
boolean keep = false;
try {
keep = idler.queueIdle();
} catch (Throwable t) {
Log.wtf(TAG, "IdleHandler threw exception", t);
}
if (!keep) {
synchronized (this) {
mIdleHandlers.remove(idler);
}
}
}
// Reset the idle handler count to 0 so we do not run them again.
pendingIdleHandlerCount = 0;
// While calling an idle handler, a new message could have been delivered
// so go back and look again for a pending message without waiting.
nextPollTimeoutMillis = 0;
}
}

Looper的工作原理

Looper会不停的从MessageQueue中查看是否有新消息,如果有新消息会立刻处理,否则就一直阻塞在哪里。Handler的工作需要Looper,如果没有Looper的线程就会报错。

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//在构造方法中创建一个消息队列,将当前线程保存起来
private Looper(boolean quitAllowed) {
mQueue = new MessageQueue(quitAllowed);
mThread = Thread.currentThread();
}
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//通过Looper.prepare()为当前线程创建一个Looper,然后调用Looper.loop()开启消息循环
private static void prepare(boolean quitAllowed) {
if (sThreadLocal.get() != null) {
throw new RuntimeException("Only one Looper may be created per thread");
}
sThreadLocal.set(new Looper(quitAllowed));
}
/**
* Run the message queue in this thread. Be sure to call
* {@link #quit()} to end the loop.
*/
public static void loop() {
final Looper me = myLooper();
if (me == null) {
throw new RuntimeException("No Looper; Looper.prepare() wasn't called on this thread.");
}
final MessageQueue queue = me.mQueue;
// Make sure the identity of this thread is that of the local process,
// and keep track of what that identity token actually is.
Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
final long ident = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
for (;;) {
Message msg = queue.next(); // might block
if (msg == null) {
// No message indicates that the message queue is quitting.
return;
}
// This must be in a local variable, in case a UI event sets the logger
final Printer logging = me.mLogging;
if (logging != null) {
logging.println(">>>>> Dispatching to " + msg.target + " " +
msg.callback + ": " + msg.what);
}
final long traceTag = me.mTraceTag;
if (traceTag != 0 && Trace.isTagEnabled(traceTag)) {
Trace.traceBegin(traceTag, msg.target.getTraceName(msg));
}
try {
msg.target.dispatchMessage(msg);
} finally {
if (traceTag != 0) {
Trace.traceEnd(traceTag);
}
}
if (logging != null) {
logging.println("<<<<< Finished to " + msg.target + " " + msg.callback);
}
// Make sure that during the course of dispatching the
// identity of the thread wasn't corrupted.
final long newIdent = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
if (ident != newIdent) {
Log.wtf(TAG, "Thread identity changed from 0x"
+ Long.toHexString(ident) + " to 0x"
+ Long.toHexString(newIdent) + " while dispatching to "
+ msg.target.getClass().getName() + " "
+ msg.callback + " what=" + msg.what);
}
msg.recycleUnchecked();
}
}

loop方法是一个死循环,唯一跳出循环的方法就是 MessageQueue.next() 返回null

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Message msg = queue.next(); // might block
if (msg == null) {
// No message indicates that the message queue is quitting.
return;
}

Looper处理消息

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msg.target.dispatchMessage(msg);

msg.target值得就是发送这条消息的Handler对象,最终又交给自己的dispatchMessage方法处理。注意这里。该方法是在创建Handler时所使用的Looper中执行的,这样就成功的将代码逻辑切换到了指定的线程中去执行了。

Handler的工作原理

Handler 的主要工作包括消息的发送和接收过程。

发送消息 post 与 send 的一系列方法,发送消息的过程就是向消息队列中插入一条数据。最终都会调用这个方法

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public boolean sendMessageAtTime(Message msg, long uptimeMillis) {
MessageQueue queue = mQueue;
if (queue == null) {
RuntimeException e = new RuntimeException(
this + " sendMessageAtTime() called with no mQueue");
Log.w("Looper", e.getMessage(), e);
return false;
}
return enqueueMessage(queue, msg, uptimeMillis);
}
private boolean enqueueMessage(MessageQueue queue, Message msg, long uptimeMillis) {
msg.target = this;
if (mAsynchronous) {
msg.setAsynchronous(true);
}
return queue.enqueueMessage(msg, uptimeMillis);
}

插入数据之后MessageQueuenext方法就会将这条数据返回给Looper开始处理,最终Looperloop方法中交给Handler来分发与处理,即调用Handler的dispatchMessage方法。

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/**
* Handle system messages here.
*/
public void dispatchMessage(Message msg) {
if (msg.callback != null) {
handleCallback(msg);
} else {
if (mCallback != null) {
if (mCallback.handleMessage(msg)) {
return;
}
}
handleMessage(msg);
}
}

主线程的消息循环

Android的主线程就是ActivityThread,入口方法是main。通过Looper.prepareMainLooper()来创建主线程的LooperMessageQueue,然后调用Looper.loop()开启主线程的消息循环。

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public static void main(String[] args) {
Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "ActivityThreadMain");
SamplingProfilerIntegration.start();
// CloseGuard defaults to true and can be quite spammy. We
// disable it here, but selectively enable it later (via
// StrictMode) on debug builds, but using DropBox, not logs.
CloseGuard.setEnabled(false);
Environment.initForCurrentUser();
// Set the reporter for event logging in libcore
EventLogger.setReporter(new EventLoggingReporter());
// Make sure TrustedCertificateStore looks in the right place for CA certificates
final File configDir = Environment.getUserConfigDirectory(UserHandle.myUserId());
TrustedCertificateStore.setDefaultUserDirectory(configDir);
Process.setArgV0("<pre-initialized>");
Looper.prepareMainLooper();
ActivityThread thread = new ActivityThread();
thread.attach(false);
if (sMainThreadHandler == null) {
sMainThreadHandler = thread.getHandler();
}
if (false) {
Looper.myLooper().setMessageLogging(new
LogPrinter(Log.DEBUG, "ActivityThread"));
}
// End of event ActivityThreadMain.
Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
Looper.loop();
throw new RuntimeException("Main thread loop unexpectedly exited");
}

ActivityThread内部有一个Handler用来和消息队列进行交互,内部定义了一组消息类型,包含四大组件的启动和停止过程。

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private class H extends Handler {
public static final int LAUNCH_ACTIVITY = 100;
public static final int PAUSE_ACTIVITY = 101;
public static final int PAUSE_ACTIVITY_FINISHING= 102;
public static final int STOP_ACTIVITY_SHOW = 103;
public static final int STOP_ACTIVITY_HIDE = 104;
public static final int SHOW_WINDOW = 105;
public static final int HIDE_WINDOW = 106;
public static final int RESUME_ACTIVITY = 107;
public static final int SEND_RESULT = 108;
public static final int DESTROY_ACTIVITY = 109;
public static final int BIND_APPLICATION = 110;
public static final int EXIT_APPLICATION = 111;
public static final int NEW_INTENT = 112;
public static final int RECEIVER = 113;
public static final int CREATE_SERVICE = 114;
public static final int SERVICE_ARGS = 115;
public static final int STOP_SERVICE = 116;
}
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